Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Microparticle-Mediated Cellular Injury in Cardiovascular Complications Associated with Diabetes.
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Microparticles (MPs) are small vesicles shed from the cytoplasmic membrane of healthy, activated, or apoptotic cells. MPs are very heterogeneous in size (100-1,000 nm), and they harbor proteins and surface antigens specific to cells they originate from. Virtually, all cells can shed MPs, and therefore, they can be found in all body fluids, but also entrapped in tissues. Of interest and because of their easy detection using a variety of techniques, circulating MPs were recognized as biomarkers for cell activation. MPs were also found to mediate critical actions in intercellular communication and transmitting biological messages by acting as paracrine vehicles. High plasma numbers of MPs were reported in many cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances that are closely associated with insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation and have been linked to adverse actions on cardiovascular function. This review highlights the involvement of MPs in cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes and discusses the molecular mechanisms that underpin the pathophysiological role of MPs in the onset and progression of cellular injury in diabetes.
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