The Role of Extracellular Vesicles as Modulators of the Tumor Microenvironment, Metastasis and Drug Resistance in Colorectal Cancer.
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with high morbidity and mortality rates. A number of factors including modulation of the tumor microenvironment, high metastatic capability, and resistance to treatment have been associated with CRC disease progression. Recent studies have documented that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a significant role in intercellular communication in CRC via transfer of cargo lipids, proteins, DNA and RNAs to the recipient tumor cells. This transfer influences a number of immune-related pathways leading to activation/differentiation/expression of immune cells and modulation of the tumor microenvironment that plays a significant role in CRC progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. Furthermore, tumor-derived EVs are secreted in large amounts in biological fluids of CRC patients and as such the expression analysis of EV cargoes have been associated with prognosis or response to therapy and may be a source of therapeutic targets. This review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the role of EVs in the modulation of the tumor microenvironment and its effects on CRC progression, metastasis, and drug resistance. On the other hand, the potential role of CRC derived EVs as a source of biomarkers of response and therapeutic targets will be discussed in detail to understand the dynamic role of EVs in CRC diagnosis, treatment, and management.
- Biomedical Sciences [164 items ]