Toxoplasma infection and milk consumption: Meta-analysis of assumptions and evidences.
Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread infection worldwide. It occurs within congenital contamination, organ transplant or immune system depression. Primary infection is mainly foodborne with the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat, unwashed fruit-vegetables, unhygienic water or contaminated milk. Gaps in current knowledge about the risk assessment of Toxoplasma gondii by milk consumption are noted. Contradictory data are observed within risk assessment of milk consumption and toxoplasmosis occurrence. While some papers reported positive correlations between drinking milk and infection transmission to human, other studies stated nonsignificant influence of milk or milk products consumption. New debate about the detection of the parasite in the milk matrix from different hosts raised interrogations. To figure out the real contribution and the potential correlations of milkborne way in toxoplasmic infection, meta-analysis approach was investigated. Overall analysis showed heterogeneous responses and led to state that statistically dairy matrix (other than milk), Bovidae products, agricultural population and countries in Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia are not linked to milkborne toxoplasmosis. The most involved factors are Capridae products, immune-depressed population and North America, Middle East, and Latin territories. The current work advanced those parameters that could affect the public health and should be envisioned in further epidemiological analysis.
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