The Role of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTP)-1B in Cardiovascular Disease and Its Interplay with Insulin Resistance.
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Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of cardiovascular disorders associated with obesity and diabetes. Several studies identified protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-1B, a member of the PTP superfamily, as a major negative regulator for insulin receptor signaling and a novel molecular player in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. Unlike other anti-diabetic approaches, genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of PTP1B was found to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling without causing lipid buildup in the liver, which represents an advantage over existing therapies. Furthermore, PTP1B was reported to contribute to cardiovascular disturbances, at various molecular levels, which places this enzyme as a unique single therapeutic target for both diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Synthesizing selective small molecule inhibitors for PTP1B is faced with multiple challenges linked to its similarity of sequence with other PTPs; however, overcoming these challenges would pave the way for novel approaches to treat diabetes and its concurrent cardiovascular complications. In this review article, we summarized the major roles of PTP1B in cardiovascular disease with special emphasis on endothelial dysfunction and its interplay with insulin resistance. Furthermore, we discussed some of the major challenges hindering the synthesis of selective inhibitors for PTP1B.
- Pharmacy Research [295 items ]