Immunomodulation Induced by Host Pathogen Interaction
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Controlling and preventing infections require deep understanding of the complex interplay that occurs between the host and pathogen following infection. In essence, immunomodulation is any process leading to an immune response that can be altered to a desired level. In mammals, the immune system has developed an extensive array of cells and immunomodulators to recognize, identify, and eliminate foreign invaders. On the other hand, pathogens have evolved multiple mechanisms to combat the host immune system as they establish infections. In this context and under certain circumstances, an infection may result in a subverted immune system, which may lead to an exacerbated illness. Recent advances in biotechnology have enhanced our knowledge of the complex interplay that occurs between the host and invading pathogens following infection, through understanding of the microbial virulence strategies as well as the host’s approaches to combat the infection.