Serum VEGF level is different in adolescents smoking waterpipe versus cigarettes: The irbid TRY
Waterpipe (Wp) use is associated with most devastating diseases and particularly popular among adolescents. Vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) is essential for generating new vessels. The effect of smoking tobacco on VEGF is controversial and unknown among adolescents. Therefore, the current study compared serum VEGF in adolescents smoking cigarettes (Cg) only (9.3%), Wp only (19.6%), and dual (Wp and Cg) (36.4%) versus nonsmokers (34.6%) in adolescents. A self-reported questionnaire and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to obtain smoking status and serum VEGF, respectively, in 475 (age: 14.6 � 1.0 years) boys (n = 263) and girls (n = 212) from Irbid, Jordan. The analysis showed that smoking status (R2 = 0.021; p = 0.001) and gender (R2 = 0.035; p = 0.000) can predict VEGF. Furthermore, 2-way-ANCOVA revealed that VEGF was lower in the dual cohort versus the Cg (33.4%; p = 0.04) and nonsmoker (29.6%; p = 0.003) cohorts; VEGF in smokers, was lower (33.6%; p = 0.04) in the Wp versus nonsmokers in the boys but not the girls. These results are unique and suggest that smoking lowers VEGF, which might adversely affect vascular growth and function. This is alarming given that adolescents are still in the development stage and smoking, particularly Wp, is popular among them. Therefore, interventions targeting smoking among schoolchildren are urgently needed to avoid the negative effects of smoking, especially on vascular health.
- Educational Sciences [57 items ]