Silica and carbon decorated silica nanosheet impact on primary human immune cells
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Silica nanosheets (SiO 2 NS) are considered to be a promising material in clinical practice for diagnosis and therapy applications. However, an appropriate surface functionalization is essential to guarantee high biocompatibility and molecule loading ability. Although SiO 2 NS are chemically stable, its effects on immune systems are still being explored. In this work, we successfully synthesized a novel 2D multilayer SiO 2 NS and SiO 2 NS coated with carbon (C/SiO 2 NS), and evaluated their impact on human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) and some immune cell subpopulations. We demonstrated that the immune response is strongly dependent on the surface functionalities of the SiO 2 NS. Ex vivo experiments showed an increase in biocompatibility of C/SiO 2 NS compared to SiO 2 NS, resulting in a lowering of hemoglobin release together with a reduction in cellular toxicity and cellular activation. However, none of them are directly involved in the activation of the acute inflammation process with a consequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The obtained results provide an important direction towards the biomedical applications of silica nanosheets, rendering them an attractive material for the development of future immunological therapies. � 2018 Elsevier B.V.
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