Discrete particle translation gradient concept to expose strain localisation in sheared granular materials using 3D experimental kinematic measurements
It is well known that the constitutive behaviour of granular materials is influenced by strain localisation into zones of intensive shearing, known as shear bands. The failure mode of specimens tested under axisymmetric triaxial compression is commonly manifested through single or multiple shear bands, or diffuse bifurcation (bulging). The ability to monitor and detect the evolution of strain localisation has been enhanced by measuring particle kinematics using discrete-element methods or three-dimensional imaging techniques such as X-ray computed tomography. However, conventional particle kinematic techniques cannot expose intricate localised shearing during the hardening, before the peak principal stress ratio. This paper presents the concept of particle translation gradient to expose strain localisation in granular materials using experimental measurements of particle translation in three dimensions. Individual silica sand particles were identified and tracked through multiple strains and particles' translations were calculated. Each particle's neighbouring particles were identified and translation fields for each of the neighbouring particles were calculated. The second-order norms between a particle translation vector and the neighbouring particles' translation vectors were averaged, resulting in a relative translation value for each particle. The translation gradient concept is effective in uncovering the onset of strain localisation within sheared granular materials.
- Civil & Architectural Engineering [246 items ]