Green synthesis and chemical characterization of gold nanoparticle synthesized using Camellia sinensis leaf aqueous extract for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in comparison to daunorubicin in a leukemic mouse model
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© 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. According to chemotherapeutic properties of medicinal plants, pharmacologists have always tried to synthesize and formulate the new chemotherapeutic supplements or drugs of metallic nanoparticles using plants. In this study, Camellia sinensis leaf aqueous extract-based gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are reported for the first time to exert a dietary therapeutic potential compared to Daunorubicin in an animal model of acute myeloid leukemia. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized using different techniques including UV-Vis., FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, EDS, FE-SEM, and XRD. DPPH free radical scavenging test was done to evaluate the antioxidant potentials of HAuCl4, C. sinensis, AuNPs, and daunorubicin. For the analyzing of cytotoxicity effects of HAuCl4, C. sinensis, AuNPs, and daunorubicin, MTT assay was used on HUVEC, Human HL-60/vcr, 32D-FLT3-ITD, and Murine C1498 cell lines. In vivo design, induction of acute myeloid leukemia was done by 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in 75 mice. Then, the animals were randomly divided into six subgroups, including control, untreated, HAuCl4, C. sinensis, AuNPs, and daunorubicin. FTIR findings suggested antioxidant compounds in the nanoparticles were the sources of reducing power, reducing gold ions to AuNPs. SEM and TEM images exhibited a uniform spherical morphology and diameters of ~20-30 nm for the nanoparticles. DPPH test revealed similar antioxidant potentials for daunorubicin and AuNPs. These nanoparticles similar to daunorubicin had low cell viability dose-dependently against Human HL-60/vcr, 32D-FLT3-ITD, and Murine C1498 cell lines without any cytotoxicity on HUVEC cell line. AuNPs similar to daunorubicin, significantly (p≤0.05) increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines and the lymphocyte, platelet, and RBC parameters and decreased the weight and volume of liver and spleen, the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the total WBC, blast, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil counts, as compared to the untreated mice. According to the above results, it appears that AuNPs can be used as a chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in the clinical trial.
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