Serum Vitamin D Concentration ≥75 nmol/L Is Related to Decreased Cardiometabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes; and Increased Cardiorespiratory Fitness in US Adults
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A serum vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D] concentration of ≥75 nmol/L is recommended for optimal health. We investigated the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and metabolic syndrome (MetS), diabetes, cardiometabolic biomarkers, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in US adults using clinical cut points recommended by health organizations. Data from the USA’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used. Prevalences and the likelihood of having MetS and diabetes according to clinical cut-points for serum 25(OH)D (<30 nmol/L, 30-<50 nmol/L, 50-<75 nmol/L, and ≥75 nmol/L) were determined with multivariate logistic regression. Relations between serum 25(OH)D and various cardiometabolic biomarkers, CRF, MetS, and diabetes were tested using multivariable-adjusted regression. Prevalence of MetS and diabetes were significantly lower in individuals with serum 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L (MetS, 21.6%; diabetes, 4.1%) compared to those with 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L (MetS, 45.5%; diabetes, 11.6%) (p < 0.0001). Individuals with serum 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L had significantly lower waist circumference (p < 0.0001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.0002), fasting triglycerides (p < 0.0001), total homocysteine (p < 0.0001), and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) and had significantly higher HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.0001) and maximal oxygen uptake (marker for CRF) (p< 0.0009) compared to those with 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L. In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L is associated with positive indicators related to cardiometabolic diseases in US adults.
- Human Nutrition [115 items ]