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AuthorSaleh, Iman
AuthorGoktepe, Ipek
Available date2020-05-14T09:55:41Z
Publication Date2019
Publication NameFood and Chemical Toxicology
AbstractMycotoxins are the secondary metabolites secreted by different types of fungi to which humans can get exposed mainly via ingestion. Patulin (C7H6O4)is a polyketide lactone produced by various fungal specifies, including Penicillium expansum as the main producer. P. expansum can infect different fruits and vegetables yet it has preference to apples in which they cause blue rot. Therefore, apples and apple-based food products are the main source of Patulin exposure for humans. Patulin was first identified in 1943 under the name of tercinin as a possible antimicrobial agent. Although it is categorized as a non-carcinogen, Patulin has been linked, in the last decades, to neurological, gastrointestinal, and immunological adverse effects, mainly causing liver and kidney damages. In this review, the characteristics of and possible human exposure pathways to Patulin are discussed. Various surveillance and toxicity studies on the levels of Patulin in various food products and effects of Patulin on cells and animal models have been documented as well. Importance of epidemiological studies and a summary of the possible toxicity mechanisms are highlighted with a case study. The commonly used control methods as described in the literature are also discussed to guide future researchers to focus on mitigating mycotoxins contamination in the food industry. - 2019 Elsevier Ltd
PublisherElsevier Ltd
SubjectApple juice
SubjectApple-based food
SubjectHealth risk assessment
SubjectPenicillium expansum
TitleThe characteristics, occurrence, and toxicological effects of patulin
TypeArticle Review
Volume Number129

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