Genetic Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes in the 22 Arab Countries.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex autoimmune disorder that results from the T cell-mediated destruction of the pancreatic β cells and is due to interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Although Arabs have one of the highest global incidence and prevalence rates of T1D, unfortunately, there is a dearth of information regarding the genetic epidemiology of T1D in the Arab world. Arabs share several HLA haplotypes with other ethnic groups, which confer either susceptibility or protection to T1D, but they have specific haplotypes that are distinctive from other ethnicities. Among different Arab countries, several non-HLA genes were reported to be associated with susceptibility to T1D, including CTLA4, CD28, PTPN22, TCRβ, CD3z, IL15, BANK1, and ZAP70. In Arab countries, consanguinity, endogamy, and first-cousin marriage rates are some of the highest reported worldwide and are responsible for the creation of several inbreeding communities within the Arab world that have led to an increase in homozygosity of both the HLA haplotypes and non-HLA genes associated with either protection or susceptibility to T1D among Arabs. Homozygosity reduces the HLA complexity and is expected to facilitate our understanding of the mode of inheritance of HLA haplotypes and provide valuable insight into the intricate genotype-phenotype correlations in T1D patients. In this review, based on literature studies, I will discuss the current epidemiological profile and molecular genetic risks of Arabs with T1D.
- Biomedical Sciences [198 items ]