Carbon mineralization by reaction with steel-making waste: A review
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Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is taking the lead as a means for mitigating climate change. It is considered a crucial bridging technology, enabling carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fossil fuels to be reduced while the energy transition to renewable sources is taking place. CCS includes a portfolio of technologies that can possibly capture vast amounts of CO 2 per year. Mineral carbonation is evolving as a possible candidate to sequester CO2 from medium-sized emissions point sources. It is the only recognized form of permanent CO 2 storage with no concerns regarding CO 2 leakage. It is based on the principles of natural rock weathering, where the CO 2 dissolved in rainwater reacts with alkaline rocks to form carbonate minerals. The active alkaline elements (Ca/Mg) are the fundamental reactants for mineral carbonation reaction. Although the reaction is thermodynamically favored, it takes place over a large time scale. The challenge of mineral carbonation is to offset this limitation by accelerating the carbonation reaction with minimal energy and feedstock consumption. Calcium and magnesium silicates are generally selected for carbonation due to their abundance in nature. Industrial waste residues emerge as an alternative source of carbonation minerals that have higher reactivity than natural minerals; they are also inexpensive and readily available in proximity to CO 2 emitters. In addition, the environmental stability of the industrial waste is often enhanced as they undergo carbonation. Recently, direct mineral carbonation has been investigated significantly due to its applicability to CO 2 capture and storage. This review outlines the main research work carried out over the last few years on direct mineral carbonation process utilizing steel-making waste, with emphasis on recent research achievements and potentials for future research.