Application of titanium nanoparticles containing natural compounds in cutaneous wound healing
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© 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The aim of the study was the rapid green synthesis of titanium nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Falcaria vulgaris leaves (TiNPs@FV) and exploring their antioxidant, cytotoxicity, antifungal, antibacterial, and cutaneous wound healing activities under in vitro and in vivo condition. These nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, Fourier transform-infrared(FT-IR), X-ray diffraction XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy TEM) analyses. The synthesized TiNPs@FV had great cell viability on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and indicted this method was nontoxic. DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) test revealed similar antioxidant potentials for F. vulgaris, TiNPs@FV, and butylated hydroxytoluene. All data of antibacterial, antifungal, and cutaneous wound healing tests were analyzed by SPSS 22 software. In the antimicrobial part of this study, TiNPs@FV indicated higher antifungal and antibacterial effects than all standard antibiotics (p ≤ 0.01). Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration of TiNPs@FV against all fungi were at 2–4 mg/mL and 2-8 mg/mL ranges, respectively. But, MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration of TiNPs@FV against all bacteria were at 2-8 mg/mL and 2-16 mg/mL ranges, respectively. In the part of cutaneous wound healing, use of TiNPs@FV ointment significantly (p ≤ 0.01) raised the wound contracture, vessel, hydroxyl proline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, fibrocyte, and fibrocytes/fibroblast rate and significantly (p ≤ 0.01) decreased the wound area, total cells, neutrophil, and lymphocyte compared to other groups in rats. The results of FT-IR, UV-Vis, XRD, TEM, and FE-SEM confirm that the aqueous extract of F. vulgaris leaves can be used to yield titanium nanoparticles with a notable amount of remedial effects.
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